Built between 1400 and 1435, the castle has a double role : military and housing. It represents the power of the Dukes of Anjou. The fortress shows their will to maintain their authority over Northern and Southern Italian territories.
Its architecture evokes the Bastille Saint-Antoine (Paris), and the comfort developments made in the house by René 1er show influences coming from Italy and northern Europe.
When Rene I died, the castle was occupied by a garrison led by a lieutenant. In 1652, during the Fronde, these soldiers rebellion against the authority of the young king Louis XIV resulted in the firing of the cannon and machine-gun on the castle: the external and internal impacts date from this period.
As soon as it was built, the castle had a prison role, which is now shown by the boats graffitis drawn by prisoners. During the French Revolution, two massacres of prisoners, republicans (1795), then royalists (1797), took place in the fortress.
In 1816, the Bouches-du-Rhône department, the new site owner, created a common law prison in the former seigniorial dwelling. It was definitively closed in 1926.
Since March 12, 1933, the castle is opened to visitors. It became the property of the Town of Tarascon in 2008.